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Sewage Treatment Plant (STP)

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STP stands for Sewage Treatment Plant. It is a facility that receives the waste from domestic, commercial and industrial sources and filters, it to remove the harmful substances that deteriorate water quality and affect public health and safety when discharged into rivers, canals, and other water bodies.

HOW SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT WORKS?

A Typical STP is basically made up of a one-piece vessel that performs three different functions. It acts as a primary settlement rank, biozone chamber, and a humus chamber.

The primary settlement tank: it functions just like a septic tank as it separates the solids and liquids by allowing the liquid to move into a chamber, called the biozone chamber. The wastewater and sewage are fed into the main settlement tank. Where solids and liquids are separated, and the liquid is passed into the biozone chamber. In this chamber, a pump is used to aerate the waste and uses good bacteria to digest or break down the organic matter in order to purify it.

The biozone chamber: it contains the good bacteria that can break down the waste. It has perfect conditions for this bacteria to populate and do this job. The bacteria digest organic matter present in the liquors, which purify the water to a high level before draining.

The humus chamber: it receives the treated sewage from the biozone chamber. It allows the remaining solids if any to settle out before discharge. The chamber remains still and has sloped walls to let the solids to slide down to the button to dissipate. The waste, when released from the final chamber (humus chamber) is around 95% clean and is ready to be discharged into local ponds, canals and land drainage systems.

SBR based STP MBR based STP MBBR based STP MBR vs MBBR

SBR is a high-performance solution for wastewater treatment that can successfully handle batch and continuous flow operation. It is a proven technology with minimal costs and maintenance requirements. Due to high removal capacity and versatility, it is compliant are the distinct qualities of SBR based sewage treatment plant.

Due to the streamlined design, Aman Water Tech's SBR small sewage Treatment plant is one of the most favoured wastewater treatment systems today. This highly flexible technology is useful in a wide variety of applications.

What is SBR sewage treatment?

SBR process is a become used water treatment method in the developed countries form quite a long time. It has become popular in India, China, and other Asia countries in recent years. When sewage is sent to the SBR tank (also known as reaction tank) one batch at a time, an activated sludge process gets activated .timed sequence of operations occurs in the SBR tank and water gets purified. Here is the timed sequence of events:

  • Filling

It is the first stage of the process where the influent wastewater is filled in the first tank. It is important that the water gets filled with a controlled yet rapid flow so that the Food to Microorganism Ratio remains appropriate. It is similar to the selector mechanism which ensures sufficient growth of microorganisms that have better setting characteristics.

  • Aeration

In the reaction stage, microorganisms use ammonia, nitrogen or BOD (Biochemical Oxygen demand). The degree of treatment is directly proportional to the sludge mass and the time taken for aeration. It also depends on the strength of the wastewater (or the level of impurities)and the degree of nitrification. It is the rate of conversion of ammonia into nitrate or nitrite of less toxicity.

  • Settling

The setting takes around 60 minutes to 90 minutes depending on the number of cycles per day. In this process, aeration stops and sludge gets settled. Cleat, effluent water gets accumulated over the sludge blanket.

  • Decanting

Decanting is the process of removing the effluent from the tank without disturbing the sludge settled at the bottom.

  • Idling

Idling is the waiting time between two filling cycles.

  • Sludge wasting

When sludge gets accumulated beyond a threshold level, it has to be discharged from the system. Sludge wasting process controls the quality of effluent water and the population of microorganisms.

Two parameters are adjusted to keep better control over the quality of sludge wasting.

  • Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS)
  • Mean cell residence time (MCRT)

SBR Tank acts as the aeration tank in the reaction stage when activated sludge and influent water are mixed under aerated conditions. It also works as the secondary clarifier during two stages; settling stage and decanting stage. Mixed liquor is again allowed to settle, and the overflow moves to the next stage of treatment. In the Sludge Return System, after settling in the SBR tank, influent gets mixed sludge return system again. However, in this case, the feed is transferred to the sludge and not vice-a-versa.

Usage and application

SBR based sewage treatment plant is ideal for several applications:

It is the best suitable system for heavy loads of industrial or municipal wastewater. SBR process is ideal for both cold and warm climates.

  • A streamlined design keeps equipment and operating costs optimized.
  • It can be upgraded easily in a cost-effective manner.
  • Meets the requirement of cleaning effluents without getting affected by prevalent conditions.
  • Around 98% removal of TSS and BOD, reduction of Phosphorus and Nitrogen in one step.

Qualities that stand apart SBR sewage treatment plant from others

  • It is highly operator friendly due to maximum automation and minimum human intervention. Due to PLC-based monitoring and control system, it is an advanced and smart system.
  • The system is flexible by supporting continuous feed, as well as true batch operations, flow control strategies.
  • It is resilient to extraneous water infiltration. Hence, it is ideal for wastewater collection network. It is capable of handling organic as well as hydraulic variations.
  • Meets effluent discharge limits consistently.
  • It is advantageous than other systems as far as the initial capital investment versus operational cost is concerned. Thus, it offers the best life cycle.

Application and usability

Due to high versatility and cost-effectiveness, SBR sewage treatment plant is widely used in:

  • Personal bungalows, houses and weekend homes
  • Hotels, resorts and holiday homes
  • Hospitals
  • Malls and shopping centres
  • Airports and railway stations
  • Commercial and residential complexes
  • Project sites
  • Schools, colleges, and other institutions
  • Small, medium and large manufacturing units
  • Municipal Gardens
  • Sports complexes
  • Other public places

Aman Water Tech SBR system is preferred in widespread applications because of its capability of giving the best results in the wide variation of flows. Less operator assistance and high efficiency make it the top-preferred wastewater management system.

Specification

  • Plant Range 50KLD to 5MLD
  • Material of construction RCC/MSRL/FRP/PP
  • Onsite construction/ factory fitted
  • Operating mode manual/automatic/holiday/ mode
  • Loaded with web monitoring system
  • Guaranteed low operating cost
  • Single or multi container models from PE to 200 PE
  • Automobile accessible version is available
  • No tertiary treatment necessary
  • Energy-efficient due to fine-bubble aeration
  • Easy operation in flexible load of waste water
  • Environmentally sound

Application

  • Individuals Bungalows.
  • Weekend house.
  • Holidays homes.
  • Hotels & Resorts.
  • Projects site.
  • Hospitals & malls.
  • Commercial & residential complex
  • School, colleges & institutions.
  • Small manufacturing units
  • Green buildings.
  • Sport club houses.
  • Municipal gardens.

What is MBR Sewage Treatment Plant?

There are several technologies available for Sewage Treatment today. We shall be focusing on one such widely used sewage treatment process, the Sewage Treatment Plant using MBR technology.

What is the MBR technology?

Membrane Bioreactor or MBR Sewage Treatment Plant is an innovative wastewater treatment method. As the name suggests, it combines two technologies, membrane filtration and the biological treatment.               

How does membrane bioreactor work?

As mentioned before, membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment combines the conventional biological process, i.e., activated sludge, with the membrane filtration technology.

You could say that the membrane bioreactor working principle is all above the ingenious combo of membrane technology and biological treatment.

  • In MBR technology system, the semi-permeable membrane, which is two-dimensional materials, (micro and(Ultrafiltration) are submerged in the aerated biological reactor
  • This extent of filtration allows the superior quality of sewage to be drawn through the membranes.
  • It also aids in the elimination of sedimentation and filtration processes that are commonly used for wastewater treatment.
  • Since the need for sedimentation is removed, the biological process can be operated more effectively.
  • A fine screening or pre-treatment is done before the waste enters the membrane tank. It helps to protect the membrane and extend its life by minimizing the accumulation of solid wastes.

Features of the MBR Sewage Treatment Plant

The highlights of our MBR Sewage Treatment Plant are as follows:

  • Our product feature an online backwash system to facilitate smooth operation without any interruptions.
  • It can produce a high calibre of treated water.
  • It is designed to decrease associated costs and chemical utilization.
  • It does not require a separate settler, clarifier, and polishing units.
  • It is flexible in the sense that it can do both underground and above the ground.
  • It is eco-friendly.

Membrane Bioreactor Advantages

  • Exhibit high waste removal efficiency.
  • Better effluent quality.
  • Ability to remove several contaminants like bacteria, nitrogen, and other suspended solid wastes.
  • Occupy less space which means small footprint.
  • It produces less volume of sludge.

Applications of Membrane Bioreactor

  • Automobile industries
  • Oil & gas companies
  • Fertilizer & solvent extractors
  • Iron & steel industries
  • Pharma industry
  • Dye & chemicals unit
  • Pulp & paper industry

MBBR Technology in Wastewater Treatment

Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is a biological technology used for wastewater treatment process suitable for municipal and industrial application. Another common name is moving bed film reactor. It was invented in the 1980s. MBBR offer an economical solution for wastewater treatment. STP MBBR technology in the use of a moving bed biofilm reactor in sewage treatment plants.

MBBR wastewater treatment systems enable efficient results of the disposal using low energy. The technology is used to separate organic substance. Nitrification and denitrify cation. MBBR design is made of an activated sludge aeration area. The surface area in the carriers optimizes the contract of water, air and the bacteria.

 MBBR activated sludge in the application of MBBR media to an overloaded treatment plant when upgrading.

 MBBR is applicable to the different quality of wastewater treatment. The application is determined by the desired results and regulations controlling discharge. The system can be of more than one stage depending on specific needs. The stages are made of individual tanks separated by screens to ensure that bacteria remain in their specific tank.

MBBR Media Used in Wastewater Treatment

Aeration tank: The tank is similar to an activated sludge tank. The aeration is used to keep in motion the activated sludge and carriers. The MBBR systems separated the excess bacteria and sludge which are directed to the final separator.

Special plastic carriers: They provide a surface for biofilm growth. Carrier materials are made of materials with a density close to that of water (1g/cm`3) an example is high-density polyethene (HDPE) with a density of 0.9g/cm`3. These carriers are moved in the tank through the aeration system. This ensures good contract between the wastewater and the biomass on the carriers.

Benefits of MBBR Technology

  • Saving of space due to its compactness
  • Easy to maintain
  • Good for a high volume of load
  • Extension and expanding are easy. This made possible by increasing the filling degree of carriers.
  • Lower discharge costs
  • MBBR is not affected by toxic shock
  • Independent process performance because there is no return line for sludge; the MBBR eliminates the return activated sludge (RAS)
  • It has high effectiveness of sludge retention time (SRT) which enhances the nitrification process
  • Production of sludge Is lower
  • It does not need recycling of the sludge-like activated sludge system
  • MBBR media is installed to retrofit existing activated sludge tanks in order to increase its capacity

Design of MBBR systems

It uses a combination of activated sludge process i.e. suspended growth and biofilter i.e. attached growth. It uses the entire tank volume of carriers in enabled by air bubbles through agitation.

The reactor can be in any shape support different load depending on carrier filling. MBBR design of reactor depended on the actual wastewater characteristics and locality. The plants come either with vertical or horizontal mounted rectangular mesh sieves. The reactor can also be fitted with cylindrical bar sieves.

MBBR carriers are cylinders having a cross inside and fin outside to increase the surface area. The standard used in below 70% of carriers in an area of not more than 465m`2 perm`3. MBBR is used together with a septic tank or a pre-coagulation step for pre-treatment. MBBR technology can be designed with additional non-mechanical or mechanical system to enhance phosphorus and faecal coliform reduction.

Application of MBBR

Biological oxygen demand (BOD) removal – it requires only one wastewater tank with the MBBR and clarification.

Nitrification- it uses two tanks one for BOD removal and the other for nitrification.

Denitrification - it uses four aeration tanks in this order before emptying in the clarification with per denitrification, BOD reduction, nitrification and post denitrification.

MBBR technology is applicable in industries, marine and for municipal wastewater treatment.

Operation and Maintenance of MBBR

MBBR which is in constant use does not require backwashing of return sludge flows. Wastewater treatment tank operation is at low-cost because-bubble aeration in the aeration zone. The against constantly moves the carriers over the services eliminating clogging.

Maintenance of the MBBR system is mainly done in the form of screening, sludge handling,

Influent equalization and it also involve maintaining the integrated control system and clarifier system. The MBBR require skilled personal for the routine monitoring of pump and blower operation. MBBR technology has a self-maintenance mechanism for the level of biofilm.

Member bioreactor is based on a combination of conventional activated sludge and biofilm media. Comparison between MBR and MBBR can be done using the following key criteria:

  • Capital investment of MBR is higher than of MBBR.
  • MBR requirement for screening is higher than that of MBBR technology.
  • MBBR system does not require chemicals in its operation like MBR system.
  • MBR system is difficult to operate as compare MBBR.
  • MBR requires recirculation pump and air scouring blowers which are not applicable in MBBR.
  • Both systems require aeration blowers.
  • In case of power shutdown, MBR can last up to 24 hours while lasts up to 10 hours after which the bacteria forms bio-cakes.
  • MBR in better in shifting of complex or toxic substance than MBBR.
  • MBR effluent water quality is superior but MBBR’s is suitable for irrigation purpose only.
  • Both are susceptible to oil and grease for MBR membrane can be cleaned well or replaced but for MBBR technology the carriers need to be changed and the plant will require a ten-day restarting time.

Conclusion

The quantity of biomass plays a big role in the removal efficiency of the MBBR system, it can be increased through the volume of carriers per unit. The carrier’s performance needs to be proven for specific wastewater treatment for application of different cases. Design of a water treatment plant should not be based on assumption or estimation but the correct material should be used for the carrier and the volume requires calibrated.

MBBR technology is effective for wastewater treatment if the regulation concerning the effluent water discharges. The systems are flexible in their application and can easily be relocated.

Wastewater treatment as required for ecological reasons can be done using the MBBR.

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